Recently, pedagogical approaches have focused on creating arts-integrated STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) or STEAM classes, which have drawn attention to the importance of the arts in science education. Despite increasing development and implementation of STEAM initiatives in science, there is limited discussion on the theoretical foundations, which could provide sound guidelines for science educators and teachers in planning and teaching STEAM curricula. In this paper, we set out the theoretical framework that explains and justifies integration of the arts and socio-cultural interaction into science teaching and learning. We explain in some detail the component theoretical elements and describe how these elements translate into teaching/learning practices in STEAM lessons. We conclude by re-emphasising the application of theoretical frameworks for the design of teaching/learning practices in an intercultural STEAM program.