Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently , astronomy belongs to the cultu re of each society, and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society bearing the name "Astrono my for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture." Owning ancient evidence of astronomical know ledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civi lization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples include the progress of astronomy in a certa in society, in connection with its evolu tion ; the place held by astronomy in litera ture and, genera lly, in art; the role of science fiction in the epoch of mass media; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for the IAU; but most important might be the educational role astronomy can play in the formation of the cultur e of the new generat ion, in educating the population about the need to protect our planet, and in the ensuring ofa high level of spiritual development of society in the present epoch.