In the last thirty years, more than hundred astronomers graduated from the astronomical departments of King Saud University and King Abdalaziz University. About 15-20% of them are working in basic space sciences or education, related to astronomy. In this paper, the problems and challenges that astronomers in Saudi Arabia face are presented, such as the limited number of astronomers as compared to the astronomical facilities available in S.A. e.g. more than eight reflectors (range from 14" to 21"), two solar labs. and some others small instruments. The lack of under or post-graduate students, and the limited support from higher authorities in the universities. The paper gives some recommendations to overcome some of these problems.