Fourth‐grade Elementary Students’ Conceptions of Standards‐based Lunar Concepts
Fourth-grade students’ knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post-test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change. Interviews were conducted with 10 students on a post-only basis to provide data on understanding the cause of moon phases. The researchers used the constant comparative method to analyse data. Pretest results indicate these students had not met the expectations expressed in the U.S. Science Education Standards for lunar concepts. Post-test results reveal a very positive performance on observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as the cause of moon phases. Interpretation and implications of these findings are provided.
Trundle, K. C., Atwood, R. K., & Christopher, J. E. (2007). Fourth‐grade Elementary Students’ Conceptions of Standards‐based Lunar Concepts. International Journal of Science Education, 29(5), 595–616. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690600779932