Trends in the Content and Organization of General Science in American Public Schools
"The problem here presented and
1. What have been the trends in general science in public school curricula of the United States during the period from 1910 to 1927, (a) in the nature and quantity of content
material presented; (b) in its organization in the curricula, and the methods of teaching the subject as has been advocated by educational leaders, and also as has been practiced in
the most representative schools offering the suhgeet during the period considered?
2. What is the educational significance of the trends
that appear-from the data examined in this study?
The Materials Used. For the purposes of this study the materials used are divided into two groups:
(l) Sources of data dealing with general science content. (z) Sources of data dealing with general science aims, organization, and methods of teaching.
In order to determine the trends in general science con
tent, twenty-five representative textbooks in the subject were used* Five of these were revisions of previous issues. The books and years of their publications are as follows: Howell, P.3S. , Introduction to General Science (1911).
Snyder, W.H., First Year Science (1914).
Caldwell,’and Bikenberry, W.L., Elements of General
Bertha M., An Introduction to General Science (1915). C.A., A First Year Course in General Science (1915).
I., General Science--First Course (1916).
F.D., Fuller, M.h., and others, First Course in General Science (1916).
lake, C.H.. General Science (1917).
Fall, Delos, Science for Beginners (1917).
Smith, W.P., and Jewett, E.G., Introduction to the Study of
Hogdon, D.H., Elementary General Science (1918).
Van Buskirk, E.F., and Smith, E.L., The Science of Everyday
Trafton, G.H., Science of Home and Community (1919). Snyder, W.H., Everyday Science (1919).
Caldwell, O.W., and Bikenberry, W .I., Elements of General
Hessler, J.C., Junior Science (1921).
Tower, S .F ., and Lunt, J.H ., The Science of Common Things
Hunter, G. W.; and Whitman, W. 0., Civic Science in the
Bowden, G. A., General Science (1923).
Wehh, H. A., and Dideoct, J. J.; Early 8tens in Science (1924).
Caldwell, 0. W., and Mier, W. H., Open Doors to Science (1925). Pierper, C. J., and Beauchamp, W. L., Everyday Problems in
Van Buskirk, E. P., and Smith, L. E., The Science of Everyday
Snyder, W. L ., General Science (1925).
Trafton, G. H., Science of Home and Community (1926).
In the attempt to determine the trends in general science aims organization, and methods of teaching, the 158 refer ences listed in the bibliography of this study were used. Briefly described, these references consist of all the re
ports dealing with this problem and appearing in the issues
of School Science and Mathematics from December, 1910, to June, 1927; also all such reports as appeared in General Science Quarterly from the beginning of its publication in Uovember,
1916, to June, 1927. Various books on education, school sur veys, courses of study, monographs, and committee reports, as well as general science articles appearing in educational magazines other than those mentioned above, are also included in the 158 references used# This bibliography may be sum marized quantitatively as follows:
103 educational magazine articles,
36 courses of study, bulletins, etc., 19 books on education.
Data from these sources were supplemented to some ex tent by material derived from the prefaces of the twenty-five general science textbooks previously mentioned."
Type of Publication
Willebrandt, Arthur F.
University of Southern California