Improving Earth Science Education through Teacher Enhancement Programs
During 1988 and 1989 three teacher-enhancement courses were conducted for 91 participants. Two courses incorporated an intense lecture/laboratory/field-work curriculum including astronomy, geology, and oceanography. The third course emphasized field experience and included supplemental evening discussions.The lecture/laboratory/field style works extremely well in introducing a broad range of topics and ideas within a short period of time, in developing laboratory exercises shared by all participants, and in reinforcing lecture material with hands-on experience at an astronomical observatory and with field trips for geology and oceanography.The field-based course provides total immersion in one topic with a fairly narrow basic theme: the geologic history and development of a specific area and its tectonic context. Participants explore all aspects of geology and prepare geologic maps. This active role lends significance to specimens collected and photographs taken as contrasted with materials accumulated during “show-and-tell” trips.Our experience with these formats leads to the following suggestions: 1) elementary-, middle-, and high-school science teachers should be included; 2) the lecture/laboratory/field approach is most beneficial; 3) laboratory sharing and curriculum development is important; 4) participants must be involved in more than one course; teacher enhancement programs must focus upon broad career development rather than taking a narrow approach.
Birnbaum, S. J., Morris, A. P., & McDavid, D. A. (1990). Improving Earth Science Education through Teacher Enhancement Programs. Journal of Geological Education, 38(3), 213–215. https://doi.org/10.5408/0022-1368-38.3.213